Der Gast in der Harald Schmidt Show . Eine Gesprächsanalyse (German Edition)

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Knoll was appointed a Fellow of the University of Tokyo , Japan. Knoll Postadresse Postal : Boltzmannstr. Curiculum Vitae Alois C. Knoll [L] A. Knoll [L] S. Profanter M. Knoll [L] R. Hostettler A. Kharchenko A. Knoll [L] M. Knoll [L] V. Cebotari S. Kugele M. Osman S. Knoll [L] Z. Bing Z. Hashemi Farzaneh A. Lenz Think. Zimmermann [L] J. Behrenbeck L.

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Seren A. Hostettler C. Patzelt A. Course no. Knoll [L] G. Knoll [L] B. Feldotto E. Althoff D. Burschka A. Lenz F. Lenz A. Knoll [L] J. Bernhard K. Esterle P. Hart A. Akl A. Knoll [L] I. Gerostathopoulos H. Gidey D. Knoll [L] E. Ercelik B. Karadeniz S. In: Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing. Knoll, and Marc-Oliver Gewaltig: Connecting artificial brains to robots in a comprehensive simulation framework: The neurorobotics platform. Mendoza; Eichhorn, S.

Mendoza; Schreiber, Ulrich; Knoll, A. Mendoza; Krane, M. AND Staub, C. AND Reckter, B. Latency-Rate Analysis. In: Energie - Technologien und Energiewirtschaft. Ali; Zapp, D. Azqueta; Lohmann, C. Eichhorn R. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. Modelling human behaviour for hybrid assembly systems. Indeed, Mazzino Montinari , the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass , called it a forgery. General commentators and Nietzsche scholars, whether emphasizing his cultural background or his language, overwhelmingly label Nietzsche as a "German philosopher".

When he accepted his post at Basel, Nietzsche applied for the annulment of his Prussian citizenship. Nietzsche believed his ancestors were Polish , [] at least toward the end of his life. He wore a signet ring bearing the Radwan coat of arms , traceable back to Polish nobility of medieval times [] and the surname "Nicki" of the Polish noble szlachta family bearing that coat of arms. His descendants later settled in the Electorate of Saxony circa the year I am proud of my Polish descent.

Most scholars dispute Nietzsche's account of his family's origins. The name derives from the forename Nikolaus , abbreviated to Nick ; assimilated with the Slavic Nitz , it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche. It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish nobility. According to biographer R. Hollingdale , Nietzsche's propagation of the Polish ancestry myth may have been part of his "campaign against Germany". Nietzsche never married. As articulated in the novella Fenitschka , she viewed the idea of sexual intercourse as prohibitive and marriage as a violation, with some suggesting that they indicated sexual repression and neurosis.

Yet, they bring other examples in which Nietzsche expressed his affections to other women, including Wagner's wife Cosima Wagner. Because of Nietzsche's evocative style and provocative ideas, his philosophy generates passionate reactions. His works remain controversial, due to their varying interpretations and misinterpretations.


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In the Western philosophy tradition, Nietzsche's writings have been described as the unique case of free revolutionary thought, that is, revolutionary in its structure and problems, although not tied to any revolutionary project. The Apollonian and Dionysian is a two-fold philosophical concept, based on certain features of ancient Greek mythology: Apollo and Dionysus.

Secondarily derivative are lyrical poetry and drama, which represent mere phenomenal appearances of objects. In this way, tragedy is born from music. Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism found in the so-called wisdom of Silenus. The Greek spectators, by looking into the abyss of human suffering depicted by characters on stage, passionately and joyously affirmed life, finding it worth living.

A main theme in The Birth of Tragedy was that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttrieben "artistic impulses" forms dramatic arts, or tragedies. He goes on to argue that this fusion has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. Apollo represents harmony, progress, clarity and logic, whereas Dionysus represents disorder, intoxication, emotion and ecstasy. Nietzsche used these two forces because, for him, the world of mind and order on one side, and passion and chaos on the other formed principles that were fundamental to the Greek culture : [] [] the Apollonian side being a dreaming state, full of illusions; and Dionysian being the state of intoxication, representing the liberations of instinct and dissolution of boundaries.

In this mold, man appears as the satyr. He is the horror of the annihilation of the principle of individuality and at the same time someone who delights in its destruction.

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The relationship between the Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions is apparent, in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make order in the Apollonian sense of his unjust and chaotic Dionysian fate, though he dies unfulfilled in the end. Elaborating on the conception of Hamlet as an intellectual who cannot make up his mind, and therefore is a living antithesis to the man of action, Nietzsche argues that a Dionysian figure possesses knowledge to realize that his actions cannot change the eternal balance of things, and it disgusts him enough not to be able to make any act at all.

Hamlet falls under this category—he has glimpsed the supernatural reality through the Ghost, he has gained true knowledge and knows that no action of his has the power to change this. He describes this primordial unity as the increase of strength, experience of fullness and plenitude bestowed by frenzy. Frenzy acts as an intoxication, and is crucial for the physiological condition that enables making of any art. In this state one enriches everything out of one's own fullness: whatever one sees, whatever wills is seen swelled, taut, strong, overloaded with strength. A man in this state transforms things until they mirror his power—until they are reflections of his perfection.

This having to transform into perfection is—art. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides , he states, that tragedy begins its Untergang literally "going under" or "downward-way," meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.

Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism and morality in his tragedies, claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation, namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. Plato continued with this path in his dialogues, and the modern world eventually inherited reason at the expense of artistic impulses that could be found only in the Apollonian and Dionysus dichotomy.

This leads to his conclusion that European culture from the time of Socrates had always been only Apollonian and thus decadent and unhealthy. Only the beautiful middle, the interplay of these two forces, brought together as an art, represented real Greek tragedy. An example of the impact of this idea can be seen in the book Patterns of Culture , where anthropologist Ruth Benedict uses Nietzschean opposites of "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" as the stimulus for her thoughts about Native American cultures.

Here Foucault references Nietzsche's description of the birth and death of tragedy and his explanation that the subsequent tragedy of the Western world was the refusal of the tragic and, with that, refusal of the sacred. Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things, and along with it any coherent sense of objective truth. In Also sprach Zarathustra , Nietzsche proclaims that a table of values hangs above every great person. He points out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming, of creating values, even if the values are different from one people to the next.

Nietzsche asserts that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. Thus the values a community strives to articulate are not as important as the collective will to see those values come to pass. The willing is more essential than the intrinsic worth of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche. Only the yoke for the thousand necks is still lacking: the one goal is lacking. Humanity still has no goal. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science.

Max Weber and Martin Heidegger absorbed it and made it their own. It shaped their philosophical and cultural endeavor, as well as their political understanding. Weber, for example, relies on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. Among his critique of traditional philosophy of Kant , Descartes and Plato in Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche attacked thing in itself and cogito ergo sum "I think, therefore I am" as unfalsifiable beliefs based on naive acceptance of previous notions and fallacies.

While criticizing nihilism and Nietzsche together as a sign of general decay, [] he still commends him for recognizing psychological motives behind Kant and Hume 's moral philosophy: []. For it was Nietzsche's historic achievement to understand more clearly than any other philosopher In Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality , Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of modern moral systems occupies a central place.

For Nietzsche, a fundamental shift took place during human history from thinking in terms of good and bad toward good and evil. The initial form of morality was set by a warrior aristocracy and other ruling castes of ancient civilizations. Aristocratic values of good and bad coincided with and reflected their relationship to lower castes such as slaves.

Nietzsche presents this "master morality" as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. To be "good" was to be happy and to have the things related to happiness: wealth, strength, health, power, etc. To be "bad" was to be like the slaves the aristocracy ruled over: poor, weak, sick, pathetic—an object of pity or disgust rather than hatred. Here, value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness, charity, piety, restraint, meekness, and submission; and evil seen as worldly, cruel, selfish, wealthy, and aggressive.

Nietzsche sees slave morality as pessimistic and fearful, values for them serving only to ease the existence for those who suffer from the very same thing. He associates slave-morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, in a way that slave-morality is born out of the ressentiment of slaves. Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own condition without hating themselves. And by denying the inherent inequality of people such as success, strength, beauty or intelligence , slaves acquired a method of escape, namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting something that was seen as a perceived source of frustration.

It was used to overcome the slave's own sense of inferiority before the better-off masters. It does so by making out slave weakness to be a matter of choice, by, e. The "good man" of master morality is precisely the "evil man" of slave morality, while the "bad man" is recast as the "good man". Nietzsche sees the slave-morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe.

Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality, both values contradictorily determining, to varying degrees, the values of most Europeans who are " motley ". Nietzsche calls for exceptional people to no longer be ashamed of their uniqueness in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people.

He cautions, however, that morality, per se, is not bad; it is good for the masses, and should be left to them. Exceptional people, on the other hand, should follow their own "inner law". A favorite motto of Nietzsche, taken from Pindar , reads: "Become what you are. A long standing assumption about Nietzsche is that he preferred master over slave morality. However, the Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann rejected this interpretation, writing that Nietzsche's analyses of these two types of morality were only used in a descriptive and historic sense, they were not meant for any kind of acceptance or glorifications.

He linked the "salvation and future of the human race with the unconditional dominance" [] of master morality and called master morality "a higher order of values, the noble ones, those that say Yes to life, those that guarantee the future. In Daybreak , Nietzsche begins his "Campaign against Morality".

Nietzsche's concept " God is dead " applies to the doctrines of Christendom, though not to all other faiths: he claimed that Buddhism is a successful religion that he compliments for fostering critical thought. Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence. Nietzsche claimed that the Christian faith as practised was not a proper representation of Jesus' teachings, as it forced people merely to believe in the way of Jesus but not to act as Jesus did, in particular his example of refusing to judge people, something that Christians had constantly done the opposite of.

Christianity is called the religion of pity. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect.

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We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. That loss of strength which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity. Pity makes suffering contagious. In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error", [] and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Judeo-Christian world.

While Nietzsche attacked the principles of Judaism , he was not antisemitic : in his work On the Genealogy of Morality , he explicitly condemns antisemitism, and points out that his attack on Judaism was not an attack on contemporary Jewish people but specifically an attack upon the ancient Jewish priesthood whom he claims antisemitic Christians paradoxically based their views upon. Nietzsche felt that modern antisemitism was "despicable" and against European ideals.

The statement " God is dead ", occurring in several of Nietzsche's works notably in The Gay Science , has become one of his best-known remarks. On the basis of it, most commentators [] regard Nietzsche as an atheist ; others such as Kaufmann suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity. Recent developments in modern science and the increasing secularization of European society had effectively 'killed' the Abrahamic God, who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years.

The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism , the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. Here he states that the Christian moral doctrine provides people with intrinsic value , belief in God which justifies the evil in the world and a basis for objective knowledge. In this sense, in constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote to a primal form of nihilism—the despair of meaninglessness. As Heidegger put the problem, "If God as the suprasensory ground and goal of all reality is dead, if the suprasensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power, then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself.

One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche calls passive nihilism , which he recognises in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer's doctrine—which Nietzsche also refers to as Western Buddhism —advocates separating oneself from will and desires in order to reduce suffering. Nietzsche characterises this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness", whereby life turns away from itself, as there is nothing of value to be found in the world.

This moving away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist, although in this, the nihilist appears to be inconsistent: []. A nihilist is a man who judges that the real world ought not to be, and that the world as it ought to be does not exist. According to this view, our existence action, suffering , willing, feeling has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists.

Nietzsche approaches the problem of nihilism as a deeply personal one, stating that this problem of the modern world is a problem that has "become conscious" in him. I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure.

Heidegger interprets the death of God with what he explains as the death of metaphysics. He concludes that metaphysics has reached its potential and that the ultimate fate and downfall of metaphysics was proclaimed with the statement "God is dead". A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the " will to power " der Wille zur Macht , which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival.

In presenting his theory of human behavior, Nietzsche also addressed, and attacked, concepts from philosophies popularly embraced in his days, such as Schopenhauer's notion of an aimless will or that of utilitarianism. Utilitarians claim that what moves people is mainly the desire to be happy, to accumulate pleasure in their lives. But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to, and characteristic of, the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society, [] and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se —it is instead a consequence of a successful pursuit of one's aims, of the overcoming of hurdles to one's actions—in other words, of the fulfillment of the will.

Related to his theory of the will to power is his speculation, which he did not deem final, [] regarding the reality of the physical world, including inorganic matter—that, like man's affections and impulses, the material world is also set by the dynamics of a form of the will to power. At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism —the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units atoms. Likewise he rejected as a mere interpretation the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature, positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces.

Other than aphorism 36 in Beyond Good and Evil , where he raised a question regarding will to power as being in the material world, it was only in his notes unpublished by himself , where he wrote about a metaphysical will to power. Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in when he left Sils Maria for the last time. It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation , but the return of beings in the same bodies. Nietzsche first invokes the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section of The Gay Science , and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , among other places.

To comprehend eternal recurrence in his thought, and to not merely come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati , "love of fate". According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether or not such a thing could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought.

Not only does Nietzsche posit that the universe is recurring over infinite time and space, but that the different versions of events that have occurred in the past may at one point or another take place again, hence "all configurations that have previously existed on this earth must yet meet Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence: " A My life will recur in exactly identical fashion.

Finally, " C If my life were to recur, then it could recur only in identical fashion. Nehamas draws the conclusion that if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, then they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions Nehamas Nietzsche's thought is the negation of the idea of a history of salvation.

Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to a mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution. The overman does not follow morality of common people since that favors mediocrity but instead rises above the notion of good and evil and above the " herd ". He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity.

I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is ape to man?

A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. And man shall be that to overman: a laughing stock or painful embarrassment. You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape The overman is the meaning of the earth. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity most obvious example being democracy , an alternative goal humanity might set for itself.

The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm. This concept appears only in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and is presented as a condition that would render the creation of the overman impossible. Some have suggested that the notion of eternal return is related to the overman, since willing the eternal return of the same is a necessary step if the overman is to create new values, untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism.

Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval; yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values. It could seem that the overman, in being devoted to any values at all, would necessarily fail to create values that did not share some bit of asceticism.

Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low, and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism. One must have the strength of the overman in order to will the eternal recurrence; that is, only the overman will have the strength to fully accept all of his past life, including his failures and misdeeds, and to truly will their eternal return.

This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made. The Nazis tried to incorporate the concept into their ideology. She reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism.

Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism ; [25] 20th century scholars contested this interpretation of his work, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism. Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view on modern society and culture.

His views stand against the concept of popular culture. He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity and brought about mediocrity. Nietzsche saw a lack of intellectual progress, leading to the decline of the human species. According to Nietzsche, individuals needed to overcome this form of mass culture. He believed some people were able to become superior individuals through the use of will power. By rising above mass culture, society would produce higher, brighter and healthier human beings.

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A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. He read Kant , Plato , Mill , Schopenhauer and Spir , [] who became his main opponents in his philosophy, and later Baruch Spinoza , whom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects [] but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others. However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?

Nietzsche's philosophy, while innovative and revolutionary, was indebted to many predecessors. While at Basel, Nietzsche offered lecture courses on pre-Platonic philosophers for several years, and the text of this lecture series has been characterized as a "lost link" in the development of his thought. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. In his Egotism in German Philosophy , Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer.

The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism Schopenhauer's two principles of morals Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong. These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche.

Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. However, in the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen. In the years after Nietzsche's death in , his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways. He had some following among left-wing Germans in the s; in — German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States.

Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in , The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche , and in a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States. Writer on music Donald Mitchell notes that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings. Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life , based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , while Richard Strauss who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book , was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography".

Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche, along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky, as one of his primary influences. Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book. By World War I , Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for both right-wing German militarism and leftist politics.

Gordon [] and Martin Buber , who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. Adorno [] can be seen in the popular Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham.

Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany. Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work. It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did his reading of him may not have been extensive. Mussolini , [] [] Charles de Gaulle [] and Huey P. Newton [] read Nietzsche. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest," and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand.

A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R. Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger , who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov , who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy".

Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Nietzsche disambiguation. German philosopher. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. University of Bonn Leipzig University. Main article: Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Apollonian and Dionysian.

Main article: Perspectivism. Main article: Master—slave morality. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main articles: God is dead and Nihilism. Main article: Will to power. Main article: Eternal return. Main article: Library of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography. See also: List of works about Friedrich Nietzsche.

Philosophy portal Atheism portal Germany portal Biography portal. Zalta, Edward N. Oxford University Press. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 9 April University of Illinois Press. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. A History of Western Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster. Summer "Friedrich Nietzsche".

Zalta ed. Retrieved 6 October Lanier 17 March Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Nietzsche's philosophical context: an intellectual biography , p. University of Illinois Press, Journal of Contemporary Religion , vol 27, no. Nietzsche , Twilight of the Idols. Hollingdale online version. A strict example of a cause-and-effect mismatch, with regard to the God-creator as the cause and our concepts as the effects, is perhaps not fully stressed in this fragment, but the more explicit it is stressed in the same book, chapter ""Reason" in philosophy", 4, as well as in The Antichrist 57, where real and imaginary origins are contrasted, and 62, where he calls Christianity 'a fatality'—'fatal' also meaning 'unavoidable' and in The Genealogy of Morals , books 1—3, among others.

The topic of " false origins" of ideas is also suggested in The Four Great Errors , 3, and precisely about morality in e. The Will to Power , tr. Kaufmann, online text here. Gemes, J. Press, , pp. New Haven: Yale University Press. Friedrich Nietzsche: Herald of a New Era. Hazar Press. Wistrich eds. Princeton, N. Friedrich Nietzsche Winter ed. The Good European: Nietzsche's work sites in word and image. University of Chicago Press, Nietzsche: A Critical Life , p. Oxford University Press, Yale University Press, Jensen, Helmut Heit eds. Archived from the original on 24 November History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences.

Oxford University Press New York , Letter to Karl Von Gersdorff , June Note that some authors among them Deussen and Montinari mistakenly claim that Nietzsche became a Swiss citizen. Journal of Medical Biography. Nietzsche and the Transcendental Tradition. Shelley Frisch. Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography , p. Plett - Schmidseder. Walter de Gruyter. Letter to Peter Gast. August Retrieved 27 November March The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche. Cambridge University Press. The Nietzsche Channel.

Retrieved 24 August Wilhelm, Bismarck und alle Antisemiten abgeschafft. December , pp. Hospital Medicine. The Legend of Nietzsche's Syphilis. Westport: Greenwood Press. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Mercury Poisoning: The Undiagnosed Epidemic. Volz , p. The Concise encyclopedia of western philosophy 3rd ed. London: Routledge. The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Wilder Publications.

Friedrich Nietzsche. Transaction Publishers. Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 16 August Nietzsche's ring Herbarz Polski Kaspra Niesieckiego S. Bobrowicza [ Polish armorial of Kasper Niesiecki S. Heraldic Family Bobrowicz, Lipsk herb Radwan t. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 17 August In , the Polish writer Bernhard Scharlitt in the spirit of Polish patriotism wrote an article about the Nietzsche family. In Herbarz Polski, a genealogy of Polish nobility, he had come across a note about a family named 'Nicki', who could be traced back to Radwan.

A member of this family named Gotard Nietzsche had left Poland for Prussia, and his descendants had eventually settled in Saxony around the year University Press , p. Charles Q. Nietzsche's Women: Beyond the Whip. Zarathustra's secret: the interior life of Friedrich Nietzsche.

Nietzsche and Jewish Culture. Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case". The Journal of Modern History.

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Young Nietzsche: Becoming a Genius. New York: The Free Press. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Philosophers Behaving Badly. London: Peter Owen. Grenke The Review of Politics. The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. Nietzsche on Ethics and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wayne State University Press.